Multiple Sclerosis or Musculoskeletal Disorders (MS)
A chronic illness and nerve damage that affects the central nervous system (brain, brain, Spinal cord (and the nerves of the eyes). Short-term can be said to be mild; inflammation in some of the white matter regions of the central nervous system in Random stains called Plack. This leads to the destruction of myelin (fatty protein) (which protects nerve fiber cells In the brain and spinal cord. The myelin causes a sudden and seamless shift in electrochemical messages between the brain, the spinal cord and the body when Myelin is damaged, neuronal transmission of messages slows down and leads to decreased function. MS as an autoimmune disease It is considered to be most common in young people. An immune system to myelin and oligo-dendrocytes that make up myelin, an attack they do. The incidence of MS has increased over the past two decades. The most recent epidemic of this disease can be due to environmental factors such as deficiency Vitamin D, ultraviolet radiation with short wavelength, viral infections, age and places with high latitudes. Several An effective drug and treatments have been developed for MS patients to slow down the progression of the disease. Understanding the molecular mechanism This disease, coupled with the advancement of stem cell research, can bring hope for those suffering from the disease.
Diarrhea, Symptoms and Diagnostic Tests
MS The most common demyelinating inflammatory disease (lipids) Nerve cells (central nervous system CNS) with increasing Neurodevelopmental Disorders in Young People. Mental mechanical causes Unknown Nearly 400,000 in the United States and 2.2 million in the United States There is a headache in the world. The percentage of MS patients in the US is 75 per 1,000,000 people. ) The percentage of MS patients in Iran is close To 40 people per 1,000,000 people. Women are twice as many men than women Ages 20 to 40 are affected. Ms Geographic Distribution with The latitude of the north or south of the equator is increasing. the population The European skin is more acceptable than the general population. If Neonates or brothers with MSs have a 1-5% chance of increasing Ms disease. 25% more likely to be matched between twins (Single ovum). A large number of patients with M- S acute or subacute nervous breakdown due to conflict Are one region. These may include disassembling The nerve of the vision is in the brain and the spinal cord. In a review of the articles, update Primary symptoms, weakness of the organs (40%), perforation of the optic nerve (22%), numbness and tingling (21%), double vision (12%), dizziness (5)% of all other items (10)%. Reducing nerve function Sensory, motor and autonomic are the most common clinical symptoms in the stage Advances in Ms. Clinical signs of this disease It is double-sided. Fatigue, painful joints, depression and loss Memories are seen in 80% of MS patients. 85% of patients with MS have a history of recovery and recovery Illness (Remitting Relapsing = RR) of Illness With the onset of periodic stings and complications for a short period of time 24 The clock is revealed. Nearly 20% of MS patients have RR 20 of which will remain stable in terms of clinical symptoms. At 25 Years, most untreated patients entered the second stage with RR. Secondary PR = Progressive (Progressive = SP Relapsing, which involves a chronic increase in symptoms Physical and disability. Nearly 15% of MS patients have one Experience the first progressive period (PP = Progressive Primary) PP affects men and women more aggressively, and Indicates lowered inflammatory markers and do not respond Systemic drugs become immune. Although MS is a congenital condition 1 CNS It does not count, but rarely a malignancy that leads to disability Or death immediately after the onset of the disease. Tests The following will help identify the microscope of Ms
IT and CT scan
RI is the most endemic instrument for identifying and identifying disruptions And the malformations of the soft tissue of the human body are unmatched. MRI Hair to hair in hair-to-hair photos with a shear of the brain And the spinal cord. Ms damage to the lower areas Photos are identified. A neurobiologist from a MRI can not only have events The demyelin can detect the symptoms, but it can be a place Includes Aceabs. If you shoot MRI is the most sensitive test for M-disease, however To diagnose this disease it is not complete. MRI imaging Also, to assess the criteria for the M-Safety precautionary approach, The course of the disease, its event time and dynamic evolution are used. MRI imaging is seven times more sensitive than clinical evaluation It is in the CNS. Clinical stings in this way Other demyelinating conditions are needed. At least two parts Demyelinized at least one month and at least two There is a different location from the CNS. CT scan from the beam X is used to process slice images from internal parts of the body. CT scan has less microbiological MRI in soft tissue identification It is also cheaper.
The cerebrospinal fluid samples are taken from the spinal cord and blood serum. Both of these samples are digested with electrophoresis. A liquid sample The positive spinal cord processes the oligoclonal segments in the CSF, But my blood has not been processed. These clauses represent one type The dynamics of the immune system. 95% of people with a diagnosis of MS-MS Oligoclonal in cerebrospinal fluid samples as well as 90% Frard with acute inflammation and 100% of people with the virus Herpes are among the other conditions. Brain fluid samples The positive spinal cord represents an immune response, but it is obvious It’s not a special condition and how. The primary purpose of decomposition The CSF analysis is to reject other ways of mss. Although they are a suggestion to MDS, but definitive identification Do not provide. If MRI is positive, definitive identification without any The answer is an experiment. Although technology analysis CSF is still advanced and researchers are looking for markers) Cages are a specific molecule for MS. Other researchers We are also looking for these detectors in urine and blood for MDS We can hope that they will succeed and samples of the cerebrospinal fluid Spinal cord is completely unnecessary to identify MS.
Exposing potential test
EP Test Method for measuring electrical current fluctuations along Nervous system. Passes can be done using size EEG (Decrease the electrical dynamics of brain cells (Measured from electrodes attached to the scalp or body) To be These results are analyzed with the computer and the average acceleration is recorded. Demylated neurons make neural signals slower than the neurons of the myelinum And this can be determined by experimenting with the EP. three kinds There is an EP experiment
1.Visible excited potential
The VEP test measures acceleration in the optic nerve. Patient At the center of the TV screen, it focuses on black and white patterns. Each square in the pattern between the white and white is measured at intervals Alternate. The patient got one of her eyes for a while And so it closes the other eye, so accelerate each The two optic nerve can be measured. 90% of people with MS Conclusive and 55% of those suspected of MDS are abnormal test results VEP.
2.Brain Stem Excited Auditory Response
The BAER test accelerates the pulses along the nerve’s hearing The skull takes off the brain. This nerve is caused by a brain stem This test reveals the damage to that area. Patient in a dark room to avoid sign interference An image for the measurements. A series of clicks And the beeps are returned to the patient. 67% of patients with MS Conclusive and 40% of people suspected of MDS are the abnormal results of this The test will be obtained.
3.Somatic sensory excitatory response
The EP-SS test involves an electrical stimulus bar Close the arm or leg. This stream is lit for 5 seconds Electrodes on the back of the muscle and the bowel of the head are responses to the special joints They measure. Truly, this flow is very weak and painless is. The acceleration of different neurons can be measured And the demyelinated points. Slow response of neurons About the neurological examination, patient medical history, MRI and sampling The cerebrospinal fluid will help detect MS-related illness.
The cause of the MS is unknown, but evidence shows this Genetic disease is most commonly found in people with environmental factors They are facing progress. Pathologically, MS is an autoimmune disease that is peripherally the CD4 + T cells, which are autonomous molecules Into the underlying CNS cells in the context of complex molecules Main tissue compatibility (MHC), both by glial antigens and The dendritic cells are expressed, and the cells transform T into Enable the TH1 phenotype The activation cells of TH1 cause myelin destruction and abilities Liberates CNS autonomous molecules. Previous cytokines Leaking inflammation, such as interferon γ, bursor lesion Cancer (α – TNF) and inflammatory cell cytokines B Contains anti-myelin antibodies that increase tissue damage They use it. CD8 + cells that have clonal progression The majority of them are shown in the MS-P palettes and are better than CD4 + It coordinates Exxon’s acute injury Self-acting T cells outside the CNS relative to microbes Foreign, insect proteins or microbial activates. cells T is activated from the blood-brain barrier through a multi-stage process They pass First, activated T cells expressing integrin, They can be linked to adherent molecules at the endothelium level. Then, T cells must have an extracellular matrix (ECM) Which is the matrix of metalloprotezes. These enzymes cause damage to ECM and myelin in MS patients To be Anti-myelin antibodies, macrophages, and microglial cells α-TNF cause demyelination. At a degradation step A patient’s neuron, a large number of glutamates by lymphocytes, Microglia and macrophages are released Glutamate receptors, Kinet and calcium influx from ionic channels Dependent on various glutamate receptors leads to necrotizing damage Oligodendrocytes axons. Genetic and environmental factors possible
It is in the person’s readiness to affect the MS. This possibility There are several interpolymeric polymorphic genes that can affect Each of these genes contributes to the overall effects of the disease he does. In addition to individual readiness, the genes are on the severity of the disease or the other Aspects of clinical phenotype also affect. Therefore, some genes are possible It will affect the first harmful events, while Some other genes affect the spread of disease, Like MHC genes, which range between 20% -50% of MS symptoms, Demyelin pallets in the white matter combined with inflammatory lymphocytes (B cells and T cells) and active macrophages and microgliae Have been. Demyelinating for a variety of degrees of myelination Again with the lack of oligodendrocytes, they are in the chronic phase of the disease. Absence of axonii and gliozis with proliferation of astrocytes and fiber glycation processing, Pathological combinations are important in MS. Recent studies of tissue pathology in multiple MS injuries are different Large damage due to inflammation, damage to the oligodendrocyte And has revealed a nervous axon.
Four different injuries It leads to demyelination and MS damage
Type 1: 20% of damage, where the cell is demyelinating T and macrophages are done.
Type 2: The damage involves T cells and antibodies, Includes 52% of injuries. Demyelination by Anti Special winds and supplements happen.
Type 3: This type covers up to 25% of the damage and is related to Disturbances of neuronal degeneration are far away, along with the program’s mass Finished.
Type 4: Includes only 3% of the damage and the first damage Oligodendrocytes are followed by secondary demyelination. A pathogenic process should address these inflammatory conditions through two mechanisms Work induces:
Vascular dislocation and topical treatment of poisons that metabolize Mitochondrial energy is transformed There is clear evidence that damage to neuronal axons is one A key feature of MS-damage is. Axonal injury occurs in both acute and chronic plaques. May This process either in parallel and in the destruction of myelin or in a second step of the MS happen. The immune response of T cells results in the release of radicals Free and nitric oxide, which combines myelin degradation To be High concentrations of nitric oxide can cause MS damage Damage to mitochondria and energy loss after it can be with Prevent sodium channel blockers Increasing glutamate in MDS damage is another mechanism Another potential is cellular toxicity In another step, the activity of microglya and T cells is less important he does. Where high sodium and calcium channel length adjustment Destructive axons may play an important role in the disease process To play In addition to the axonal injury, the presence of less penetrating seven-palatine cortex Lymphocytes and longer microgliaids are known for a long time Has been. MS-MS is gradually eliminated by the death of the nerve cell Dendrites and demyelin axons are identified. By using cells Fundamental, the ability to treat patients with MDS will be needed. Method Stem cell transplantation may inhibit or reverse the symptoms of MS Slowly.
The most important goal of MS therapy is to prevent disability and inability Nervous system is permanent. Acute Ms Terms With Cortico Steroids that reduce complications and inflammation, and nerve conduction It improves the immune system and is treated. Side effects of corticosteroids, hypertension, overweight, A mood swing, cataract, an increase in blood sugar and infection. Currently, 9 medicines are administered by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Reforming factors that alter the MRS background And has been approved.
These are your first medicines Muscular injections are:
1. Intramatrio-enteric intramuscular beta
2. Inftheron Beta 1a under the skin
3. Inftheron Beta 1b under the skin
5. Monoclonal Inhibition of the immune system inhibitor antibody
6. Oral Fingolimod
7. Amantadine helps reduce fatigue.
8. Baclofen and Tizanidine improve muscle cramp.
9. Mitoxantrone transplants delay the progression of the disease Drops
These drugs reduce the number of MS attacks and in Preventing the progression of this disease is effective. Available drugs And the improvement of this disease can cause localized damage Reduce. Despite these treatments, when the disease progresses The second progressive will have little effect. Several ways to cure symptoms such as: cuts to reduce Spasticity, bladder discomfort, pain caused by nerve cells Destroyed and fatigue is available. Side effects of interferon beta Causing damage to the liver. Side effects of phytonmoid, decrease heart rate and increase blood pressure is. Side effects of mitozan, which is an immune system inhibitor, Induces leukemia.
Nutritional and complementary therapies
1. Remove all suspected food allergens, such as dairy products, wheat (gluten), Soya, Chocolate, Canned Canned Food and Food Additives.
2. Use of fruits and vegetables containing antioxidants (garlic, Vegetable leaf and pepper, blubberi, tomatoes, chalets.
3. Avoid processed foods such as white breads, pasta and sugar.
4. Less use of red meat and more meat White, riverfish, tofu or beans for protein.
5. Removal of trans fatty acids, unsaturated vegetable oils, in which Ready meals, crackers, pecans, potatoes, fried rings Onions, donuts, processed foods.
6. A drink of cigarettes, coffee, alcohol and any drink that contains caffeine Be
7. Drink 8 glasses of filtered water a day.
8. Periodic vibration, at least 30 minutes a day and 5 times a week.
9. Reduce protein by up to 10% daily calorie intake.
10. Removing Milk and Milk Products and Replacing Resources Other calcium.
11. Applying the natural fruits and vegetables as much as possible Also, natural products processed from wheat and soybeans.
12. Use of Olive Oil and Omega-3 Fatty Acids in the Regimen dietary.
13. Antioxidant vitamins E, D, C, A and B vitamins And mineral compounds like magnesium, calcium, zinc and selenium.
14 calcium (1500 mg per day) and vitamin D supplementation (1000 IU daily) to support muscle and skeletal weakness. Recently, low levels of vitamin D have been associated with MS disease they know.
15 Q10 (100 200 mg) (when sleeping, antibiotic) Oxidant for the immune system and the muscle
16. N-acetylcysteine, 200 mg daily, for anti-inflammatory effects Oxidant L carnitine, 500 mg daily for antioxidants and
17. Still A. Protective muscle dynamics.
18. Probiotic supplements (acidophilus Lactobacillus), each 10 billion colony-forming units per day on the health of the device Digestion and safety system. 19.Grapefruit seed extract
20. Malathonin 1 hour before bedtime for sleep Comfort and safety of the safety system.
21. Genikugo extract, 40-80 mg, 3 times a day to guard Antioxidant and immune system.
22. Green tea extract 250-500 mg daily for anti-effects Oxidant and safety system.
Physical, professional and acupuncture treatments
Physical, acupuncture and professional therapies have a biological and practical role They are helping MS patients. These solutions The combination may be used to reduce fatigue and body tightness To be These methods are based on motor patterns, reduced eclipse and maintenance It will have functional abilities. Physical therapies, Keep weakened muscles strong and powerful and keep the joints dynamic You have to strengthen blood circulation and prevent pressure ulcers they do. Physiotherapy can improve a person with MS Standing, walking, getting up from sitting or sleeping education To give Physiotherapy should be tailored to the needs of any person with Ms program To be done. Individual therapist’s recommendations to control the progression of the disease Ms should be treated with the exercise program and take advantage of this method In everyday struggles of life. The best way to train And encouraging people with MSs to attend classes That’s a way of life and team travel by an experienced one Physiotherapy and Neurotransmitters. Physiotherapy To maintain firmness and reduce eclipse, as well as improve General health is important. Professional therapy can be a dynamic feature of MDS in life Everyday by improving abilities and teaching alternatives to complete Tasks or identification of manual equipment. A professional therapist It can be easy for people with MS to do daily tricks And more satisfaction. Professional therapist can when Signs of various sclerosis prevent the person from being dynamic, enjoying Fun and self-help. Professional treatment MDS patients make the following suggestions: Arm and hand treatment, written help, changes in driving And the vehicle, cooking and eating and drinking adaptations, Changes to Computer Changes About the Work Tool, Extend Leisure time, use of electric wheelchairs, use Bathing tools and health services, auxiliary wearing gear Cleanliness Needle medicine may reduce the symptoms The immune system and gastrointestinal system help. Needle medicine The scalp is very useful and applies for nervous disorders Taken.
Of the 30% of MS patients, if they are not treated, they have disabilities Physically dramatically over 20 years. Number of MD-lowering drugs have slowed the progress of this disability Is. Male patients with PP have the worst prediction for the lowest response Suitable for treatment. Most of the spinal cord injury in PP is also a factor in the acceleration of progress Disability. Nearly 40% of MS patients have pain They experience their treatment period.