The Brain and Behavior

The brain can be divided into three major regions: the hindbrain, the midbrain, and the forebrain. You can see where these regions are located in the brain by looking at Figure 1. Figure 1. Structure and areas in the human brain The Hindbrain The hindbrain includes the cerebellum and two structures found in the lower … Continue reading “The Brain and Behavior”

Renal Vascular and Glomerular Diseases

Renal Vascular and Glomerular The renal vasculature includes the renal artery and sits major branches, the specialized glomerular capillary bed, and the renal veins. Each of these vascular divisions may contribute to distinct clinical syndromes. Glomerular disease rarely causes local symptoms; it is more likely detected by the presence of either edema or hypertension, the … Continue reading “Renal Vascular and Glomerular Diseases”

What is Arterial Hypertension ?

Definition and epidemiology The dividing line between normal and elevated blood pressure is not absolute, a fact that makes a precise definition of hypertension difficult. Studies indicate that the morbidity and mortality related to an elevation in blood pressure increase in direct proportion to the level of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, beginning at levels … Continue reading “What is Arterial Hypertension ?”

Anatomic imaging of the urinary tract

Anatomic imaging The plain film of the abdomen, or KUB, is a simple way of determining renal size and shape. The normal kidney shadow will approximate the length of three and one-half vertebral bodies, or about 12 cm. Bilaterally small kidneys in a patient with renal insufficiency implies a chronic, irreversible process, whereas the presence … Continue reading “Anatomic imaging of the urinary tract”

Mechanisms of Arrhythmogenesis

Arrhythmias If a microelectrode is introduced into a single myocardial cell, an action potential (Figure 1) can between the inside and the outside of the cell (inside negative). The resting membrane potential of a normal Purkinje cell is approximately – 90 millivolts (mv) with respect to the outside of the cell. When the membrane potential … Continue reading “Mechanisms of Arrhythmogenesis”